(Continual Service Improvement) Something that is measured and reported to help manage a Process, IT Service or Activity.


(Service Design) Software that connects two or more software Components or Applications. Middleware is usually purchased from a Supplier, rather than developed within the IT Service Provider.


A representation of a System, Process, IT Service, Configuration Item etc. that is used to help understand or predict future behaviour.


A technique that is used to predict the future behaviour of a System, Process, IT Service, Configuration Item etc. Modelling is commonly used in Financial Management, Capacity Management and Availability Management.

Monitor Control Loop

(Service Operation) Monitoring the output of a Task, Process, IT Service or Configuration Item; comparing this output to a predefined norm; and taking appropriate action based on this comparison.


(Service Operation) Repeated observation of a Configuration Item, IT Service or Process to detect Events and to ensure that the current status is known.


The defined purpose or aim of a Process, an Activity or an Organisation as a whole. Objectives are usually expressed as measurable targets. The term Objective is also informally used to mean a Requirement.


(Service Strategy) Provision of Services from a location outside the country where the Customer is based, often in a different continent. This can be the provision of an IT Service, or of supporting Functions such as Service Desk.


(Service Strategy) Provision of Services from a location within the country where the Customer is based. See Off-shore, Near-shore.


(Service Operation) Day-to-day management of an IT Service, System, or other Configuration Item. Operation is also used to mean any pre-defined Activity or Transaction. For example loading a magnetic tape, accepting money at a point of sale, or reading data from a disk drive.


The lowest of three levels of Planning and delivery (Strategic, Tactical, Operational). Operational Activities include the day-to-day or short term Planning or delivery of a Business Process or IT Service Management Process.The term Operational is also a synonym for Live.

Operational Cost

Cost resulting from running the IT Services. Often repeating payments. For example staff costs, hardware maintenance and electricity (also known as "current expenditure" or "revenue expenditure"). See Capital Expenditure.

Operations Bridge

(Service Operation) A physical location where IT Services and IT Infrastructure are monitored and managed.

Operations Control

Synonym for IT Operations Control.

Operations Management

Synonym for IT Operations Management


Review, Plan and request Changes, in order to obtain the maximum Efficiency and Effectiveness from a Process, Configuration Item, Application etc.


The result of carrying out an Activity; following a Process; delivering an IT Service etc. The term Outcome is used to refer to intended results, as well as to actual results.


(Service Strategy) Using an External Service Provider to manage IT Services.


A relationship between two Organisations which involves working closely together for common goals or mutual benefit. The IT Service Provider should have a Partnership with the Business, and with Third Parties who are critical to the delivery of IT Services

Passive Monitoring

(Service Operation) Monitoring of a Configuration Item, an IT Service or a Process that relies on an Alert or notification to discover the current status. See Active Monitoring.


A measure of what is achieved or delivered by a System, person, team, Process, or IT Service.


(Service Transition) A limited Deployment of an IT Service, a Release or a Process to the Live Environment. A Pilot is used to reduce Risk and to gain User feedback and Acceptance.


A detailed proposal which describes the Activities and Resources needed to achieve an Objective. For example a Plan to implement a new IT Service or Process. ISO/IEC 20000 requires a Plan for the management of each IT Service Management Process.

Planned Downtime

(Service Design) Agreed time when an IT Service will not be available. Planned Downtime is often used for maintenance, upgrades and testing.


An Activity responsible for creating one or more Plans. For example, Capacity Planning.


Formally documented management expectations and intentions. Policies are used to direct decisions, and to ensure consistent and appropriate development and implementation of Processes, Standards, Roles, Activities, IT Infrastructure etc.


A way of working, or a way in which work must be done. Practices can include Activities, Processes, Functions, Standards and Guidelines


(Service Strategy) The Activity for establishing how much Customers will be Charged.


(Service Transition) (Service Operation) A Category used to identify the relative importance of an Incident, Problem or Change. Priority is based on Impact and Urgency, and is used to identify required times for actions to be taken. For example the SLA may state that Priority2 Incidents must be resolved within 12 hours.


(Service Operation) A cause of one or more Incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created, and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation.